WORKSHOPS | CHECKLISTS | OUTLINE | INDEX | Section 1 | Section 2 | Section 3 | Section 4 |Section 5 | REVIEW | QUIZ / CERTIFICATE |

Self-Study Guide:
Preparing Visually Impaired Students for Uncontrolled Crossings

photo shows a stick figure with question marks around the head.  It is facing a crosswalk of two lanes -- about 20 feet to the right, cars are going around a roundabout -- it is unclear whether they will continue to circle the roundabout, or approach the crosswalk. Photo shows a person standing on an island waiting to cross one lane of right-turning traffic.  A crosswalk is painted from the island across one lane to the sidewalk on the corner.  A long line of cars is approaching the crosswalk, and there is no traffic signal for that traffic. Photo shows Dona and two participants in the gazebo. Dona is talking with animation. Photo shows a row of computers, with one woman sitting in front of a computer and another woman standing behind her, both of them laughing and triumphantly throwing their hands up.  Other women sit at other computers and a man points to something on one of their screens.

whose deaths in 1987 alerted us to the insidious changes at crossings with no traffic control, such as Situations of Uncertainty,
AND GORDON PARKS, who was killed in 2010 while crossing in a Situation of Uncertainty.
May their memory inspire and remind us to prepare our students to assess and cross these streets safely.

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feedback on Self-Study Guide

    Welcome -- enjoy your adventure through these pages!
      Hang onto your seat belt -- this Self-Study Guide has information and strategies that have accumulated and been modified and refined during a journey of understanding that has taken more than 30 years! It is intended to help you prepare students for crossings with no traffic signal or stop sign ("uncontrolled crossings").

      What should our students know for uncontrolled crossings?
      They should know that:
      • in order to be confident about whether or not it is clear to cross, the warning times of approaching traffic that is detected when quiet (or when nothing is temporarily blocking the view) should be at least as long as their crossing time.
      • crossings can have
        • "Situations of Confidence" where the warning time of all approaching vehicles is longer than crossing time, and
        • "Situations of Uncertainty for gap judgment" where the warning times of some vehicles are not long enough, even when it's quiet (or when nothing is temporarily blocking the view), so that you never know whether it's clear to cross.
      • our students need to be able to recognize Situations of Uncertainty, and Situations of Confidence.
      • at Situations of Uncertainty, they need to analyze the risk of crossing, and use alternatives when the risk is not acceptable.
      • at Situations of Confidence, they need to know how to reliably determine crossable gaps in traffic.

      Each of these is fully addressed in this Self-Study Guide, and there is a flow chart of skills and tasks at the beginning of Section 2.
      So if you're ready, let's get started!

    Self-Study Guide
      The Self-Study Guide has 5 sections:
      • Section 1: Introduction to Situations of Uncertainty
          What is a Situation of Uncertainty for gap judgment, and how can we recognize it?
            (research; best practice)
      • Section 2: Teaching students to recognize Situations of Uncertainty
          How can we teach students to recognize Situations of Uncertainty for gap judgment?
            (intuitive understanding of crossing time; comparing warning time of approaching vehicles with crossing time; flow chart for Situation of Uncertainty)
      • Section 3: You are in a Situation of Uncertainty -- What Now?
          What to do when you are in a Situation of Uncertainty?
            (analyzing risks; making decisions; considering what is "safe" and alternatives)
      • Section 4: Teaching students to determine when there is a crossable gap in traffic
          When they are in Situations of Confidence, teaching students to determine when they have time to cross
            (learning the effect of masking sounds; scanning for traffic; judging the speed and distance of vehicles)
      • Section 5: Applications! Vignettes, Frequently Asked Questions, and Workshop Suggestions
          Case studies (vignettes), frequently asked questions, "freaky findings" and workshop suggestions

      Helpful links
        At the top of every page in the Self-Study Guide is a navigation bar with the following links:
        • Section (#?) (in the top left corner) links to a list of the contents of each page in that section.
        • Self-Study Guide has a link back to this page.
        • OUTLINE links to a table of contents for the Self-Study Guide, listing the topic for each page.
        • INDEX has an alphabetized list of topics from Sections 1-4, and links to find them.
        • CHECKLISTS are cheat-sheets for teaching students and using the procedures
        • REVIEW has study questions covering all the essential information.

        Additional links in the navigation bar at the top of the first page of each Section are:
        • WORKSHOPS links to a flyer and schedule of workshops in this topic
        • QUIZ/CERTIFICATE explains how to take the quiz and earn a certificate of completion.

          NOTE:   MANY LINKS are provided for additional information that is not necessary for understanding this course. You are encouraged to skip the links unless you are curious or want to know more!

      Printing out the Self-Study Guide
        Each of the first 4 Sections can be downloaded in a Word document for printing or browsing (Section 5 is already on a single web page). The web version of the Self-Study Guide has videos and descriptions of all the photos, but the Word version has none of these. Links to each Section are below:
      Testing your understanding -- a learning tool!
        The Self-Study Guide has a quiz designed to indicate which areas you need to review further. For more information about the quiz, click here. To get the code needed to take the quiz, contact me.

    Certificate of Completion and ACVREP Credit
      You can earn up to 5 hours of ACVREP-approved CE credit as well as a Certificate of Completion that indicates you have mastered the material. For more information, click here.

    picture shows the cover of the APH program 'Crossings with No Traffic Control: Teaching Concepts and Skills to Deal with Them,' Dona Sauerburger, COMS, APH American Printing House for the Blind.  Has a sillouette of a person holding a cane, stepping forward at a crosswalk. Software program to help you teach these concepts and skills
    Picture shows Dona sitting at her computer, with a picture of a crosswalk on the screen and a checklist on the keyboard.  She is looking at Facetime on her smartphone, where she can see her student. Using APH program to teach street-crossing skills REMOTELY

      This page explains how we used the APH street-crossing program to teach street-crossing concepts and skills remotely, with the student and instructor each in their own homes.

    Young Students Learn about Street-Crossing in Group Workshop
      Innovative O&M instructors Josee Martin and Denise Guitar organized an exciting workshop for their students to learn some of the skills and concepts needed for crossings with no traffic control. The workshop was held May 2-3, 2013 in New Brunswick, Canada, and the students were not the only ones to learn!

      You can click here to follow the workshop and how the students learned about these street crossings, and find out some of the advantages of teaching students in groups.

    Appreciation for input from folks like you!
      Between 2010 and 2012, more than 300 O&M Early Adopters took a workshop or completed this Self-Study Guide and committed themselves to "incorporate (and/or develop!) teaching tools and strategies to prepare students to recognize Situations of Uncertainty for gap judgment, and analyze and cross streets with no traffic control."

      These were years of intense creativity and collaboration, and I am very grateful for the energy and synergy that was put into this issue! During those two years, these Early Adopters introduced more ideas and inspired the creation of more teaching tools than I had managed to do in the previous 20 years. For example:
      • extensive checklists were developed to facilitate our instruction of these skills and concepts;
      • the flow chart in Section 2 was developed by an Early Adopter, Wendy Miller;
      • strategies of scanning for cars were refined; and
      • teaching tools were adapted to introduce these concepts to young children and people with brain injury.

          Self-Study Guide for signalized crossings

      I hope that as you get involved, we will continue to learn together. I encourage you to keep in touch with me and share your successes, questions and concerns -- together we can go even further!

    Ready? Let's begin!
      To start the Self-Study Guide, click below on the link labeled "NEXT" -- enjoy!

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