These strategies have been suggested by blind travelers and orientation and mobility specialists -- thank you for all the ideas!
Notice that strategies to reduce one risk may increase other risks -- for example to reduce one risk you may want to cross clockwise whereas to reduce another risk you will cross counterclockwise.
You may need to prioritize the risks, and reduce the most important risks even if it means increasing others. At signals, without vision:
parallel right-turning traffic - Alert driver (move cane; hand upraised as "stop!" etc.); step out into "safe" area while prepared to step back; begin crossing early while traffic is slow (perhaps use Accessible Pedestrian Signal to get started earlier); cross clockwise so drivers can see you approach and so that most of them have already turned before you get there.
parallel left-turning traffic - Cross early in cycle, when traffic in nearest half of the parallel street forms a "platoon" with no gaps (crossing counter-clockwise means crossing that half of the street early).
perpendicular right-turn-on-red - Once drivers prepare to turn, they are looking to their left, so if you cross clockwise, make yourself as visible as possible AS THE DRIVERS APPROACH and assume that when they are at the corner, they never again even glance your way; do not cross if they are edging forward or blocking the crosswalk; be prepared to hit metal of their vehicle with your cane if they suddenly move forward as you cross.
If crossing counter-clockwise, be aware that some drivers in the last lane will go into the crosswalk before they look to their left, so be cautious as you reach the last lane.
perpendicular traffic running the red light - Most drivers who run the red light do so just after it turns red, so wait a few seconds before starting to cross (this is counter to strategy to avoid traffic turning from the parallel street).
At signals, with functional vision:
Scan for all dangers in sequential order before / during crossing. Following is a suggested procedure for scanning.
For crossing counterclockwise
first (before stepping off) look left/behind for parallel right-turning cars (and left for traffic running through the red light);
start to cross while watching for left-turning parallel cars until you reach the middle;
when approaching the last lane, watch for potential right-turn-on-red vehicles.
For crossing clockwise:
First (before stepping out) look left for traffic that may run through the red light or turn right on red;
(NOTE that drivers turning right on red may never even see you, as they will be looking away from you for approaching traffic)
Start to cross and, when almost reaching the middle of the street, look over the right shoulder for potential left-turning parallel traffic;
Look ahead for right-turning parallel traffic.
At uncontrolled crossings where you cannot see / hear well enough to know for certain that it's clear to cross
(that is, you hope no one is coming and if they do, you are relying on them to stop for you):
Be sure there is a good line of sight between you and the drivers.
Be as visible as possible (bright clothing, make cane or dog harness visible, etc.).
Cross at times when there is less traffic (and therefore less likelihood that an undetected vehicle will come just as you start to cross).
Work with jurisdiction to get crossing well marked, good lighting at crosswalk, and pedestrian laws and white cane laws publicized and enforced (be sure you know the pedestrian and white cane laws in your state or province!).
Make the public aware that people are crossing there regularly.
Click here for information about increasing the likelihood that drivers will yield.
At stop-sign controlled crossings:
Cross when there is no traffic at the intersection -- for example, for consumers who rely on hearing, when there are no masking sounds and no vehicles heard
(careful - it is not always possible to hear vehicles idling or slowly approaching the intersection); OR
Cross when a car in the nearest parallel lane is approaching too fast to turn
(careful - this takes skill to do correctly or you are actually increasing your risk! For example if you start to cross when the car has already entered the intersection, a left-turning car may dart behind that car, crossing your path without being able to see you because the first car blocks his view of you).
NOTE: If, after reducing the risks as much as possible, the crossing is still too risky, alternatives should be considered.